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Scientific Disciplines

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The point of this list is for you to use it as a roving target list. WE can build a better textbook on any of these subjects than has ever been written before. By ustilizing formal conversational logic and our process and metaprocess, we can together collaboratively write a textbook on each of these subjects, and drastically improve and centralize the giant web of information/ propaganda/ disinformation, and lies.

So the very first order of organization for "Groups" is Any Group associated with any Scientific Discipline. The next most important variable is the signal to noise ratio of any such group. Wether they use our process and metaprocess, or none, or some other...

If we together build a better store and access for information that is more accurate and less propagandized; we can solve high order problems there-after using that information.

So first we do depth research into ALL of this... but imagine how easy that is for ten thousand people and how hard it is for one? It requires people to work together to do this...But if they do it, those ten thousand people have pushed human evolution forward a notch; and they can ride that power and the wave it creates... to virtually anywhere; As each of those ten thousand becomes simply an original contributor in a matrix that is millions of persons deep and moderated by original contributors. So if you get in on the ground floor, and work hard; the sky is the limit.

What we propose is to form a think tank farm. The success and failure of the whole venture rides on achieving a working focus with a very large number of people. IF those people can get clear and lucid enough to stop wasting their voice where its being flushed into yesterdays archive; and start organizing their voice and their time with the truth... Then everything can change enormously faster than most people imagine it can.

Humanity is poised at the cliff side and precipice over looking the great bay of Eden. Its coming from the "HELL" side of this mythic terrain, and it can either drop off that precipice into extinction and probably extinction of the vast majority of other animal life on earth... OR... It can find the wings that only some of us knew we had... And fly into being a truly evolved, truly advanced, truly moral, and truly ethical, as well as truly modern society.

We can fall here into the abyss faking 1940s technology for 60 years, OR we can stop the corporations from owning us all as peasants and claim what science actually gives us; Free Energy; Permaculture; Eternal Life.. And a robust millionaires economy without a single person in poverty on the entire planet.

It is possible to have "STAR TREK"s possible future of 500 years from now 50 years from now instead. Make new and different choices. Choose to be a geek society instead of a sociopathic bully society. If we tackle the things that are truly important and wrestle them down one at a time; the zillion noise factories all end because they have been that found out. It is possible to win the future; by winning the "culture wars" on the side of truth instead of on the side of the oligarchs, the grand con scam.

THEY have been fighting for 200 years a silent proxy war against your mind. And every generation for that entire period has payed with the broken promises of "Democracy" and the replacement con scam of "Republicanism." The time has come to wake up and end that war on the side of light instead of letting them PWN you as a propaganda turf war zombie sheeple.

In short; you can argue forever in ignorance as an entire civilization. OR, you can stop the madness and swim together to knowledge.


Scientific Disciplines LIST


The branches of science (which are also referred to as "sciences", "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines") are commonly divided into two major groups: natural sciences, which study natural phenomena (including biological life), and social sciences, which study human behavior and societies. These groupings are empirical sciences, which means the knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions.Template:Sfn There are also related disciplines that are grouped into interdisciplinary and applied sciences, such as engineering and medicine. Within these categories are specialized scientific fields that can include parts of other scientific disciplines but often possess their own terminology and expertise.

Contents

Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science that seeks to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world by applying an empirical and scientific method to the study of the universe. The term natural sciences is used to distinguish it from the social sciences, which apply the scientific method to study human behavior and social patterns; the humanities, which use a critical, or analytical approach to the study of the human condition; and the formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to factual methodology to study formal systems.


Physical science

Physical Science is an encompassing term for the branches of natural science and science that study non-living systems, in contrast to the life sciences. However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena.

Physics

Physics (from Template:Lang-grc) is a natural science that involves the study of matter<ref name = "feynman"> Richard Feynman begins his Lectures with the atomic hypothesis, as his most compact statement of all scientific knowledge: "If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations ..., what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is ... that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another. ..." Template:Cite book</ref><ref> Template:Cite book</ref><ref>Note: The term 'universe' is defined as everything that physically exists: the entirety of space and time, all forms of matter, energy and momentum, and the physical laws and constants that govern them. However, the term 'universe' may also be used in slightly different contextual senses, denoting concepts such as the cosmos or the philosophical world.</ref>

Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy.<ref>Evidence exists that the earliest civilizations dating back to beyond 3000 BCE, such as the Sumerians, Ancient Egyptians, and the Indus Valley Civilization, all had a predictive knowledge and a very basic understanding of the motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars.</ref> Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 16th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right.<ref>Francis Bacon's 1620 Novum Organum was critical in the development of scientific method.</ref> Certain research areas are interdisciplinary, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, which means that the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries physicalism emerged as a major unifying feature of the philosophy of science as physics provides fundamental explanations for every observed natural phenomenon. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences, while opening to new research areas in mathematics and philosophy.

Chemistry

Chemistry (the etymology of the word has been much disputed)<ref>See: Chemistry (etymology) for possible origins of this word.</ref> is the science of matter and the changes it undergoes. The science of matter is also addressed by physics, but while physics takes a more general and fundamental approach, chemistry is more specialized, being concerned with the composition, behavior (or reaction), structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.<ref>Chemistry. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved August 19, 2007.</ref> It is a physical science which studies various substances, atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination, and which incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the spontaneity of chemical processes.

Disciplines within chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter; organic chemistry, the study of organic (carbon based) matter; biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms; physical chemistry, the study of chemical processes using physical concepts such as thermodynamics and quantum mechanics; and analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Many more specialized disciplines have emerged in recent years, e.g. neurochemistry the chemical study of the nervous system (see subdisciplines).

Earth science

Template:Main

Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth sciences) is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.<ref>Wordnet Search: Earth science</ref> It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth. Typically Earth scientists will use tools from physics, chemistry, biology, geography, chronology and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth system works, and how it evolved to its current state.

Life science

Life science comprises the branches of science that involve the scientific study of living organisms, like plants, animals, and human beings. However, the study of behavior of organisms, such as practiced in ethology and psychology, is only included in as much as it involves a clearly biological aspect. While biology remains the centerpiece of life science, technological advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have led to a burgeoning of specializations and new, often interdisciplinary, fields.

Biology

Biology is the branch of natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.<ref>Based on definition from Aquarena Wetlands Project glossary of terms.</ref> Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.

Zoology

Zoology is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct.

Human Biology

Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, nutrition and medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields.

Some branches of biology include: microbiology, anatomy, neurology and neuroscience, immunology, genetics, psychology, physiology, pathology, biophysics, and ophthalmology.

Botany

Botany, plant science(s), or plant biology is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of plant life. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines including structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, chemical properties, and evolutionary relationships among taxonomic groups. Botany began with early human efforts to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest sciences. Today botanists study over 550,000 species of living organisms. The term "botany" comes from Greek βοτάνη, meaning "pasture, grass, fodder", perhaps via the idea of a livestock keeper needing to know which plants are safe for livestock to eat.

Social sciences

The social sciences are the fields of scholarship that study society. "Social science" is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to a plurality of fields outside of the natural sciences. These include: anthropology, archaeology, business administration, communication, criminology, economics, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology and, in some contexts, geography, history, law, and psychology.<ref name="issues">Verheggen et al. 1999. "From shared representations to consensually coordinated actions", in "Theoretical Issues in Psychology", John Morrs et al., ed., International Society for Theoretical Psychology</ref><ref>http://www.staff.u-szeged.hu/~garai/Vygotskyboom.htm L. Garai and M. Kocski: Another crisis in the psychology: A possible motive for the Vygotsky-boom. Journal of Russian and East-European Psychology. 1995. 33:1. 82-94.</ref>

Formal sciences

The formal sciences are the branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, theoretical computer science, information theory, systems theory, decision theory, statistics, and some aspects of linguistics.

Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world, but instead with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules. Methods of the formal sciences are, however, applied in constructing and testing scientific models dealing with observable reality.

Decision theory

Decision theory in economics, psychology, philosophy, mathematics, and statistics is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. It is very closely related to the field of game theory.

Logic

Logic (from the Greek λογική logikē)<ref>"possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative", also related to λόγος (logos), "word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle" (Liddell & Scott 1999; Online Etymology Dictionary 2001).</ref> is the formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major areas: epistemology, ethics, metaphysics. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language.<ref name=stanford-logic-onthology>Template:Cite book</ref> Logic is also studied in argumentation theory.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

Mathematics

Mathematics, which is classified as a formal science,<ref>Marcus Tomalin (2006) Linguistics and the Formal Sciences</ref><ref>Benedikt Löwe (2002) "The Formal Sciences: Their Scope, Their Foundations, and Their Unity"</ref> has both similarities and differences with the empirical sciences (the natural and social sciences). It is similar to empirical sciences in that it involves an objective, careful and systematic study of an area of knowledge; it is different because of its method of verifying its knowledge, using a priori rather than empirical methods.Template:Sfn The formal sciences, which also include statistics and logic, are vital to the empirical sciences. Major advances in formal science have often led to major advances in the empirical sciences. The formal sciences are essential in the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws,Template:Sfn both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).

Statistics

Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data.<ref name=Dodge>Dodge, Y. (2003) The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, OUP. ISBN 0-19-920613-9</ref><ref>The Free Online Dictionary</ref> It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.<ref name=Dodge/>

A statistician is someone who is particularly well versed in the ways of thinking necessary for the successful application of statistical analysis. Such people have often gained this experience through working in any of a wide number of fields. There is also a discipline called mathematical statistics, which is concerned with the theoretical basis of the subject.

The word statistics, when referring to the scientific discipline, is singular, as in "Statistics is an art."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> This should not be confused with the word statistic, referring to a quantity (such as mean or median) calculated from a set of data,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> whose plural is statistics ("this statistic seems wrong" or "these statistics are misleading").

Systems theory

Systems theory is the transdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems in all fields of research. The term does not yet have a well-established, precise meaning, but systems theory can reasonably be considered a specialization of systems thinking and a generalization of systems science. The term originates from Bertalanffy's General System Theory (GST) and is used in later efforts in other fields, such as the action theory of Talcott Parsons and the system-theory of Niklas Luhmann.

In this context the word systems is used to refer specifically to self-regulating systems, i.e. that are self-correcting through feedback. Self-regulating systems are found in nature, including the physiological systems of our body, in local and global ecosystems, and in climate.

Theoretical computer science

Theoretical computer science (TCS) is a division or subset of general computer science and focuses on more abstract or mathematical aspects of computing.

These divisions and subsets include analysis of algorithms and formal semantics of programming languages. Technically, there are hundreds of divisions and subsets besides these two. Each of the multiple parts have their own individual personal leaders (of popularity) and there are many associations and professional social groups and publications of distinction.

Applied science

Applied science is the application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment. Examples include testing a theoretical model through the use of formal science or solving a practical problem through the use of natural science.

Applied science differs from fundamental science, which seeks to describe the most basic objects and forces, having less emphasis on practical applications. Applied science can be like biological science and physical science.

Example fields of applied science include

Fields of engineering are closely related to applied sciences. Applied science is important for technology development. Its use in industrial settings is usually referred to as research and development (R&D).



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